Monday, April 1, 2019

Overview Of Cooling System Engineering Essay

Overview Of Cooling remains plan EssayIn effect to lessen washbasin pulmonary tuberculosis and figure the dismissal standards, much purifyments has been make. The examples of the improvements argon combustion strategies, provoke injection remains, baffle electric discharge and provoke quality1. at that place argon four possible sources of atmospherical pollution from the automobile. Without firing off controls, a autoburetor and can army tank emits vapors, the crankcase emits b petty(a)by flatulencyes and the tailpipe emits p any sploshes that contain pollutants. The main regulated pollutant in locomotive devour ar atomic number 7 oxides (NOx), vitamin C monoxide (CO), unburned hydro ascorbic acid (HC) and smoke2. These snap travel pollutants atomic number 18 harmful to human beings as well as plants and animals. The law now requires automotive manufacturers to install emission controls.Car that gives off excessive amount of descent pollutants may non be al ruggeded on the streets roughlyday. Stronger laws limiting automotive advertize pollution and mandate inspection and maintenance has been proposed. These laws are part of the government policy that cars essential(prenominal) contri only ife as little as possible to the problem of personal credit line pollution. Each car already boast three major ashess for absolute pollutants from these sources that is positive crankcase ventilation (PVC), evaporative emission control and publish emission control. But in this study we want to focus more than on locomotive locomotive change governance and its effects to the emission decrease, burn custom and railway locomotive performance. Now, we ordain by just about the comp hotshotnts of locomotive engine mystifytle down system and its run lows. engine cool down system system is a system that responsible for cooling the engine by releasing estrus by the cooling basketball teams so that the cars engine is non too hot or not too unwarmed. This system helps to bring the engine up at to normal operational temperatures as quickly as possible and affirm the operational temperature for efficient function of the car engine. It is very important to take the engine at its most operating(a) temperature at all focal ratios and operating conditions. Burning go off in the engine produces hop up. Some of the heat must be taken away before it damages the engine separate. This is one of the jobs that performed by the cooling system. If the engine temperature is too low, fuel consumption pull up stakes rise and if the temperature is too hot for too long, the engine pull up stakes overheat.1.2 TYPES OF cooling SYSTEMThere are two ca characters of car cooling system which is the occupation cooling system and politic cooling system. variant cooling system is a system that designs air as a cooling agent. It is comm all uptake in single piston chamber engines much(prenominal) as tak ecycles firearm perspicuousness cooling system is know as the radiator system. It a system that uses liquid as a cooling agent and is use in a multi- cylinder engine such as cars and trucks. Radiator is the crucial components in the car cooling system. It ensures the engine is not overheating.Figure 1.1 Cooling System Components 121.3 COMPONENTS OF COOLING SYSTEM1.3.1 WATER JACKETFor operation of the cooling systems, it uses louvre basic parts or components to do the job in supreme the engine temperature that is urine jackets, piss pith, thermoregulator, radiator and fan. Water jackets are stretch spaces in the midst of the cylinder walls and the outside shell of the stoppage and send. Coolant from the piddle wield periods low gear by dint of the block wet jackets. Then, the coolant flows up through the cylinder head water jackets and butt to the radiator.1.3.2 WATER PUMPWater pump ordinarily known as impeller pumps. It is attached to the count of the engine and are determined by a belt from crankshaft pulley. The pump circulates as much as 28 390 L of coolant an hour. As the impeller rotates, the trend blades draw coolant from the bottom of the radiator. It forces the coolant from the pump outlet to the water jackets. The impeller shaft is supported on sealed bearings which neer need lubrication. The seals prevent the coolant from leaking past the bearings.1.3.3 RADIATORRadiator is a heat exchanger that points heat from engine coolant that passing through it. The heat transplant from the hot coolant to the tank outside air. It has three main parts that is radiator sum, gateway and outlet tanks. The core consists of found of tubes and set of fins that attached to the tubes.Figure 1.2 Coolant Flow Inside Engine Cooling System 12CUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopCapture.PNG1.3.4 thermoregulatorFor thermostat, it is a heat operated valve that regulates the coolant temperatures. It does this by imperative the coolant flow f rom the engine to the radiator. The thermostat is in the coolant race between the cylinder head and the radiator. The valve in thermostat stay open and close as coolant temperature changes. As long as the coolant temperature is under the thermostat set evince, the thermostat remains closed. at a time the temperature arrives at the set point, the thermostat starts to open, sending het up coolant through the radiator. The radiator then cools the heated engine coolant and the water pump forces the coolant plunk for through the engine. The passage to the radiator is closed when the engine is cold so the engine can warms up more quickly. Engine heat stays in the engine instead of being carried to the radiator.Figure 1.3 Closed Position of thermostat 12 Figure 1.4 Open Position of Thermostat 121.3.5 ELECTRIC FANAn galvanic fan is turned on by thermostatic switch solo when needed. For example, it turns on when the coolant temperature r for each one 93C and turn off back the fan if the coolant drops below this temperature. But on fomites with air conditioning, turning on the air conditioner bypass the thermostatic switch. The fans run all the time when air conditioner is on. The fan is controlled by electronic control module (ECM) in many vehicles with an electronic engine control system.1.4 PROPERTIES OF COOLANT1.4.1 TAP WATER overwork water is potable water supplied to a exploit at bottom the household or workplace. The application of technologies involved in providing clean water to homes, businesses and public buildings is a major subfield of sanitary engineering. Specific chemical compounds are often added to tap water during the treatment process to adjust the pH or remove contaminants, as well as chlorine to kill biological toxins. The use of tap water adversely affect the car cooling system. Tap water contains magnesium and calcium ions that forget form the yellow come down (rust) when the water becomes hot. The yellow precipitate bequeath be a ttached to the car engine after long time period and this provide funk the absorption of heat from the engine. If this rust become denser, it can interfere the passage of cooling liquid in the car cooling system.1.4.2 ETHYLENE ethylene diol (EG)ethene diol is an organic compound widely apply as an automotive anti draw a blank and a precursor to polymers. In its pure form, it is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene diol is toxic, and ingestion can endpoint in death. Ethylene ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene via the intermediate ethylene oxide. The major use of ethylene glycol is as a medium for convective heat transfer. For example, automobiles and liquid cooled estimators. Pure ethylene glycol has a special(prenominal) heat capacity about one one-half that of water. So, while providing freeze protection and an increased boiling point, ethylene glycol lowers the specific heat capacity of water mixs relative to pure water. A 50/50 mix by m ass has a specific heat capacity of about 0.75 BTU/lb F, thus requiring increased flow rank in same system comparisons with water.1.5 FUELGasoline is a transparent, gas pedaleum derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the aliquot distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some accelerator pedal to a fault contain ethanol as an alternative fuel. A best gas pedal quality should have Proper volatility, which determines how easily the flatulency vaporizes.Resistance to start boot or detonation.Oxidation inhibitors, which prevent formation of gum in the fuel system.Antirust agents, which prevent rusting of metallic element parts in the fuel system.Detergents, which keep help keep the carburetor or fuel injectors clean. colour for identification, such as red eye which gives calculateed gasoline a rust or orange colour.1.5.1 VOLATILITYVolatility is the ease with which a gasoline vaporizes. Gasoline must vaporize quickly after it is assorted with air in the throttle body or intake manifold. Otherwise, drops of liquid gasoline enter the cylinder walls. This increases wear of the cylinder walls, pistons and rings. Gasoline that does not vaporize result not burn. It leaves the cylinder in the throw out gas and pollutes the air. This drive offs gasoline and depresss fuel delivery. Volatility determines how quickly a gasoline can vaporizes. A high volatility gasoline can vaporizes quickly while a low volatility gasoline vaporizes slowly. Gasoline must have the right volatility for the climate in which it is used.1.5.2 ANTIKNOCK QUALITY leaded is known as octane rating. It stripe the gasoline ability to resist knock during combustion. The higher the octane rating, the greater the engines resistance to knock. The knocking in your engine occurs when the air fuel mixture detonates prematurely. Since it is the gasoline vapor that ignites, the air fue l mixture must be correct to burn smoothly. Some of the problems associated with knock are overheating of engine parts such as valves, pistons and spark plugs.1.6 outpouringThen we will go for the explanation about the combustion in the engine and how it resulting emission. Automotive fuels such as gasoline are made mostly of two elements that hydrogen and carbon. They have chemical symbols H and C. This oddball of fuel is hydrocarbon (HC). During complete combustion in the engine, these two elements unite with separate element, the gas oxygen. Oxygen, usually in the form of free oxygen (O2), makes up about 20 percent of the earth melodic phrase. This is the air that we breathe.During combustion process, each atom of oxygen will unites with two hydrogen atoms. Each carbon atom unites with two oxygen atoms. Oxygen uniting with hydrogen produces water (H2O). Carbon uniting with oxygen produces gas carbon dioxide (CO2). During combustion, the burning of air fuel mixture in the engi ne cylinder may relieve oneself 2200oC or higher. This high temperature produces impel in the engine that makes it run and produces power. With gross(a) combustion, all the hydrogen and carbon in gasoline would unite with the oxygen. The exhaust would contain altogether harmless H2O and CO2. But combustion is not perfective tense in the engine. Some of the gasoline (HC) does not burn. Also, some of it only partly burns. This produces carbon monoxide (CO). This lack of oxygen prevents the formation of carbon dioxide. The unburned gasoline and partly burned gasoline (CO) exit from the engine through the tailpipe. Once in the air, it will cause atmospheric pollution. An new(prenominal) group of atmospheric pollutants the engine is nitrogen oxide (NOx). About 80 percent of the atmosphere is gas nitrogen (N). High temperatures in the combustion chamber cause some of the nitrogen and oxygen to unite and form nitrogen oxide (NOx).1.7 PROBLEM recordNowadays the rate of fuel consumptio n currently going on throughout the world is quite alarming. Fuel consumption and emission rates are off the chart. This will give negative impact to the purlieu and increase the pollution rate. Basically the power to move a ram vehicle comes from the burning of air fuel mixture in an engine. Air pollutants from vehicles comes from the products of this combustion process. With perfect combustion process, the emission would be water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both of these are harmless gases. But combustion is not perfect in an engine. Some of the gasoline (HC) does not burn and some of it only partly burns. This produces carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Both of these gases are air pollutants and existent polluted air is very bad for human and animals. Then the exact for low cost car from customer that has good performance with low fuel consumption and emission withal increase. Usually car that has good performance will have high fuel consumption and emission rate. In lay out to solve these problems, the study about engine cooling system and its effects towards engine performance, fuel consumption and emission reduction will be conducted. Two types of liquid cooling such as tap water and ethylene glycol will be used and its temperature will be checked in order to investigate the influenced to these 3 takes.1.8 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCHTo study the effect of engine cooling system and its components to the engine performance, fuel consumption and emission.To investigate the influence of percentage of ethylene glycol in the coolant and coolant temperature set point to the engine performance, fuel usage and emission rate.1.9 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCHThe scope of this researched is mainly about the variations percentage of coolant (ethylene glycol) complicated with water and its temperature effects towards engine performance, fuel consumption and emission. The percentage that will be used for ethylene glycol are 30%, 50% and 70%. For every pe rcentage, the coolant temperature set point will be controlled victimization two kind of thermostat with temperature set point 80oC and degree CelsiusoC. The increasing temperature in cylinder block by increasing the coolant temperature results in fuel nest egg and emission reduction.Boiling PointEthylene Glycol solution(% by volume)0102030405060708090100TemperatureF212214216220220225232245260288386C100101.1102.2104.4104.4107.2111.1118127142197 evade 1.1 Boiling Point of Ethylene Glycol Solutions 13Car lesson that will be used is Perodua Kancil 660cc (4 stroke and 3 cylinder). Then for the fuel, petrol RON 95 will be used. Three taste will be conducted in investigate the engine performance, fuel consumption and emission rate. The evidence for engine performance is dynamometer try out. A dynamometer is a invention that is used for measuring force, moment of force ( contortion), and power. For example, the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be deliberate by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM).For the fuel consumption, we will conducted a fuel test by using a new tank hand overd by automotive lab. Unit to measure the fuel test is in liter/km. To measuring the emission rate, gas analyzer is used and the measurement unit is in concentration of gas which is parts per million (ppm).1.10 SIGNIFICANT OF THE RESEARCHThis study will give bettor understanding and exposure about the operation in the engine cooling system and how it will effects the engine performance, fuel consumption and emission.simplification the fuel expenses by car users as the rate of fuel consumption reduced.The expected output to reducing the emission will result in increased the air quality that is harmful to humans. It also will lead in reducing the air pollution rate and provide more safer environment for people.The low cost car with good performance and low on fuel and emission rate also will be develop.2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2. 1 COOLING SYSTEM OPERATIONA bulky amount of heat is generated in the internal combustion engines. It is created when the air fuel mixture is ignited inside the combustion chamber. The explosion that occur will causes the piston to be forced down inside the cylinder, levering the connecting rods and turning the crankshaft. The temperatures of the metal parts around the cylinder can exceed 2500oC. To prevent the components such as engine oil, cylinder walls, pistons, and valves from overheating, it is necessary to effectively dispose the heat. more or less 30% of heat in the combustion process is lost into the atmosphere through the exhaust system, 35% is converted into power to accept the vehicle and the remaining 35% lost as heat through the cylinder walls 9.Water pump is attached at the front of the engine and driven by a belt from crankshaft pulley. The impeller rotates and the curved blades draw liquid cooling from the bottom of the radiator and force it to flow through pump o utlets and water jackets. The liquid cooling will flow through passageways in the engine block and cylinder head. Temperature in the combustion chamber can around 2500oC, so cooling around this area is critical to prevent overheat.The areas around exhaust valve are especially crucial and almost all space inside the cylinder head around the valve that is not needed for structure modify with coolant. But when the engine is still cold, thermostat still close and the liquid cooling is circulated back to the engine. By closing the passage through radiator when engine is cold, the engine warms up more quickly. Engine heat stays in the engine instead of being carried to the radiator. This shortens warms up time, wastes less fuel and reduces exhaust emissions 3. after(prenominal) engine already heat up, the thermostat keeps the engine foot race at a higher temperature than it would without a thermostat. The higher operating temperature improves engines force and reduces exhaust emission s 3.2.1.1 entrap OF RADIATORA radiator usually known as heat exchanger. The hot coolant that flows through it will transfer the heat by the air blown through the aluminium fins by fan. Nowadays new cars use aluminium radiators. It usually made by brazing thin aluminium fins to shape aluminium tubes. Flow of the coolant is from inlet to the outlet through many tubes that attach in parallel arrangement. These fins will conduct the heat from the coolant inside the tubes and transfer it through the air that catamenia through the radiator.1A type of fin is inserted into the tube called turbulator. Its function is to increases the turmoil of the fluid sleek through the tubes. If the flowing of the fluid through the tubes is smooth, only the fluid that feeling the tubes would be cool directly. The amount of heat transferred from the fluid to the tubes depends on the difference in the temperature between the tube and the fluid touching it. Therefore, less heat will be transferred if the fluid that is in contact with the tube cools down quickly. To prevent that, turbulence is created inside the tube and all of fluid mixes together. Keeping the temperature of the fluid touching the tubes up so that more heat can be extracted and all of the fluid inside the tube is used effectively.2.1.2 EFFECT OF RADIATOR FANThe function of radiator fan is to draw the air towards the radiator and helps to cool the hot coolant that flowing through the tubes. It usually has four or more blades that spin rapidly to provide sufficient air to that would cool the engine. The fan will be attach between the radiator and the engine so that the air can easily flowing through the radiator. There are also additional fan in front of the radiator in some cars in order to draw more cool air to the engine especially when vehicle is not lamentable fast enough, very little cool air reaches the radiator and the engine is not cooled properly.2.1.3 EFFECT OF PRESSURE CAPThe radiator cap or also kn own as stuff cap actually increases the boiling point of your coolant by about 25oC. The cap is a pressure level release valve and usually is set to 15 psi. When the coolant is placed under pressure, its boiling point will increase. As the engine running, the cooling system will be heated up and increase the pressure. The only place where the pressure can escape is at the pressure cap. Therefore, the setting of the spring on the cap determines the maximum pressure in the cooling system.If the pressure reaches 15 psi, it will push the valve open and allowing the coolant to escape from the cooling system. The flowing of the coolant is from flush tube to into the bottom of the overflow tank. This kind of arrangement will keep air out of the system. After the radiator is already cools back down, a vacuum is created in the cooling system that pulls open another spring loaded valve while sucking the water back in from the bottom of the overflow tank to replace the water that was expell ed.2.1.4 EFFECT OF WATER PUMPWater pumps are impeller pumps. They attached to the front of the engine and driven by a belt from the crankshaft pulley. As the impeller rotates, the curved blades draw coolant from the bottom of the radiator3. The water pump only thrust to drive the circular flow of the coolant within the engine cooling system, so the inlet is the point of lowest pressure in the system and the exit point is the highest pressure. The pressure drops sharply at the inlet/outlet of the water pump during the operational of the water engines and this pressure drop will vary in proportion to the rotational speed. Water pumps in engines are prone to cavitation and air bubbles are likely to permeate in to antifreeze and will severely reducing the performance, reliability and service life of the engines6. Cavitation means the cavities or bubbles are forming in the liquid that have been are pumping. These cavities form at the low pressure or suction side of the pump. For the well design engine cooling system, cavitation is less likely to take occur as the temperature of the coolant declines. But when the cavitation temperature is reached, the pressure of the water pumps drops abruptly and all the cooling system loses its functionality.2.1.5 EFFECT OF THERMOSTATThe main function of the thermostat is to allow the engine to heat up quickly and keep it at its efficient temperature. It control this by rule the amount of water that goes through the radiator. The coolant in the cooling system starts to pop by picking up heat at the water jackets. In the coolant circuit, the pressure gradient exist and causing the hot coolant flows out from the engine to the radiator or to coolant bypass passage 2. Once the temperatures of the coolant rises to 80oC, the thermostat starts to open. Different thermostat open at different temperatures and allowing fluid to flow through the radiator. The occult of the thermostat lies in the small cylinder located on the engine side o f the wrench. Actually this cylinder is filled with jump on that starts to melt at temperatures 80oC (depends on the thermostat). Then, a rod that is connected to the valve press into this wax. As the wax melts. It will unfolds and pushing the rod out of the cylinder and opening the valve.2.2 EFFECT OF COOLANTCoolant is the mixture of antifreeze and water in the cooling system. The commonly used antifreeze is Ethylene Glycol. This coolant will circulate through the cooling system. It will remove the waste heat from the engine and delivers the heat through the radiator hose to the radiator. It is not recommended to use only water as a liquid cooling because it would freeze if the temperature drop below 0oC. This would stop the circulation and the engine would overheat. As the water would expand 9% as it freezes, it would crack the cylinder block and head, split the radiator 3. By controlling the engine cooling system in a pliable way as compare to the conventional cooling system, it will improve the fuel consumption rate of spark ignition (SI) engines 11.It is known from the cold start research that the coolant and inlet charge temperature are key parameters to reduce pollutant emissions and guarantee smooth engine operation. Cold start experiment were performed with coolant temperatures of 15oC and 80oC. In the steady state operation reached after the start, the piston surface temperature was one by one 110oC and 150oC. The HC emissions were 25% lower and the NOx emissions 7% higher with the higher coolant temperature. It seems to delegate that there is an influence of the coolant temperature on the emissions through the cylinder wall temperatures 5.In the search for greater fuel economy and reduced emission output, the engine cooling system is being targeted for further improvements to engine performance through its effects on engine frictional losses. Fuel economy improvements from the changes to the engine cooling system are derived mainly from reduc ed engine frictional losses with increased oil temperature by aggrandisement the engine operating temperature indirectly through the step increase in the coolant temperature. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) output are also shown to decrease with the increase in operating temperature 7. There are also suggestion that higher cylinder block temperatures will reduce the frictional losses with the piston and ring pack and will lead to reducing fuel consumption 10.But the increasing of operating temperature has a negative effect on nitrogen oxide (NOx) output as the formation of NOx in the combustion chamber can be highly sensitive to temperature changes 7.There are some previous full treatment in the engine cooling area focuses on to the fuel economy benefit to IC engines through the reduction engine frictional losses by raising the coolant temperature. As the coolant temperature increases, the cylinder block wall temperaturs also increases and will result in reducing the HC emissions 11. It concentrates mainly on gasoline engines where oil temperature is relatively lower and the tailpipe emissions are HC and CO. Fuel efficiency improvements about 10% are achieved in part load conditions by raising coolant temperature 7.METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTIONIn this chapter, we will discuss about the procedures and wide-cut activities to carry out in this whole project. The flow chart below will describe the steps that should be followed during this project. Basically there are 3 test that will be conducted that is dynamometer test, fuel test and emission test.3.2 FLOW CHARTPart SelectionSelect the type of liquid cooling and thermostat that will be used.Preparation and apparatusSelect the type of liquid cooling and thermostat that will be used.Run the experimentThe experiment will be conducted to the conventional and modify cooling system.Emission try outFuel TestDynamometer TestData AnalysisTYPES OF METHODS3.3.1 DYNAMOMETER TESTDynamometer is actually a device use to measuring force, moment of force (torque) and power produced by an engine or motor. We can see the example from the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM). Nowadays dyno test become more easier to operate with the advance of the modern computer and produce more accurate results. A dyno that paired with the computer will display the power rating of a given instrument as a figure below.CUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopdynamometer-test-2.1-800800.jpgFigure 3.1 Example chart of Dynamometer TestActually dyno test is used for various applications but the most common one is automobile examination. Automobile manufacturers will measure the performance of a car or truck in order to market its power. Sports car will modified their vehicles with aftermarket parts in order to achieve higher power output and then run the dyno test to evaluate their modifications.Dyno tests can be run in a braces of different ways which is anatomy and engine dyno. When running a chassis dyno test, the vehicle to be tested is driven onto the dyno platform that simulates resistance through the use of automated wheels. For an engine dyno test, the engine to be tested is attach to the dyno device. These different methods produce different measurements such as brake dollar bill power and torque from a chassis dyno and flywheel horse power and torque from an engine dyno. Power is often lost through the drive train of a vehicle so the brake measurement will typically less than the flywheel measurement.The model that will be used for dynamometer testing is Dynapack 3000. The components of Dynapack 3000 consists of computer, sensors hub transcribers controller and power absorption units. This test is a bit from other dyno test because of the elimination of the tire to roller interface on a conventional roller dyno. It eliminates this variable by using a hub adapter that p rovides a direct coupling to our power absorption units. There will be no tire slip, no rolling resistance and no chance of the vehicle coming off from the dyno at high speeds.For the opening of operation. Firstly the hubs of the vehicle are directly attached to hydraulic pumps. A variable load can be applied with all of the potency holding power that hydraulic possess. Figure below show that the wheels are removed from the vehicle and the variable fit hub adaptors are bolted to the vehicle axle. The hub adaptor is then directly attached to a hydraulic absorption unit.CUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopdyno and gas analyser2t1nkVS-bVa9gQb37zp6LeNyhqyOJc4TfM-fDuqeDVw.jpgCUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopdyno and gas analyservIQiOZd6MQEKChUSE_EjDet0c_3AZX3Ykc63jQJyo1g.jpgFigure 3.2 Hub adaptor bolted to vehicle Figure 3.3 varan of Dynapack 30003.3.2 FUEL TESTFor the fuel test, a new fuel tank is used to replace with the existing tank. The problem with the existing tank is the fuel consumption cannot be measured correctly. The new fuel tank will be connected using the hose from the fuel pump to the serial publication of injectors at cylinder head. Gasoline or RON 95 will used in this fuel test. The example for the new fuel tank is shown in figure below and the fuel pump is already attached on top of it.CUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopdyno and gas analyser8EYHfSB7JGJ_i1gO_0dpJCrDuHDVK9bGh1xnPJzzuSQ.jpgFigure 3.4 The new fuel tankThe test will be conducted according to the gears and revolution per minutes (RPM) that already been set. It is done to control the speed of the engine to get the accurate result of the fuel consumption without affected by the changing of gear on each test. The RPM and gears can be referred in the table below. shiftRPMDistance (km)13000230003300044000Table 3.1 RPM for each of the gear3.3.3 EMISSION TESTHydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) are measured in parts per million (ppm). For this emission test, the device that will be used is the gas analyzer 95/3. The gun of this device will be placed into the tailpipe to measure the exhaust rate. The information will be taken during the various RPM that already been set up which is 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm. The result of this test will be preserve in this device.CUsersFaisal Mamat.FaisalMamat-PCDesktopdyno and gas analyservKBx3J-b1dLfHTA3MeaWYgo8LcKrPxDuaprQ5PBq-VY.jpgFigure 3.5 Gas Analyzer 95/3PROJECT SCHEDULE

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