Monday, February 25, 2019

Micro and Nanotechnology Adoption by the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

Micro and nano applied science is starting to show promise in the pharmaceutical application. The two key questions in this field are what is nanotech and arent either medicates nanotech after all, they are in the nano size range. These can be answered fairly simply Nanotechnology is where the nano-size of a internality affects its activity the size placing the substance at the interface between quantum and material effects. The classic example to award these effects is that of gold nano fractions. Bulk gold is insoluble and metallic-yellow in colour. However, at one m the gold is formulated as a nanoparticle it is soluble and the size of the particle determines its colour from bright blue to vivid red.Two key areas where nanotechnology is display promise in the pharmaceuticals application are tools for drug disco very, and secondly in formulation and delivery systems.In the development of tools to support drug discovery, nanotechnology is exploitation a trend to move away from high throughput to high capacitance screening, where greater information on fewer compounds is achieved. As our knowledge to the highest degree drug-tar dumbfound interactions increases, it is comely apparent that high-volume/low-content screening can miss extremely arouse interactions and effects. For example, SPR biosensors can detect a ligand salad dressing step and measure the bond constants. But it cannot measure surface stresses caused by binding, which are an important work out for example in antibiotic efficacy against MRSA and VRE. Here nanomechanical cantilevers have been shown to be effective in providing extremely elegant information that can explicate the difference between various drugs that appear to have the same binding kinetics.iThe move to high content screening has been slow due to the astronomic investments in high throughput screening laboratories and so naked as a jaybird systems need to be compatible. However, where systems are compatible with these techniques for example using 96 well surface platforms, embraceion is possible. As a result, improvements and adoption is currently iterative, rather than revolutionary, still it is happening.With regards to nanotechnology in formulation and delivery science, thither are a fleck of early adopters of nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical industry. Table 1 shows a subject of types of nanoparticle formulations that are already approved for marketing.The full list of approved nano-enabled products is very small and those that have made it to the market are generally reformulations of lively generic drugs. We are still awaiting the second-generation nanodrug, where the nano-effect is integral to the product activity.Nanotechnology appears to be quest the classic technology adoption curve as shown in design 1. This shows the bell-shaped adoption curve for any technology, overlaid by the technology sufferance line. Nanotechnology appears to have passed through the hype and trough and is now starting to be slowly adopted.It appears that the problem for nanotechnology in formulation is one of risk. Companies need to get their products to market quickly to allow as much market exclusivity time as possible not to recoup their investment, as this is a change posture cost, but to recoup the cost of developing future drugs, the cost of which is becoming ever more expensive. The Tufts Center for Drug Development estimated that the cost of convey a single drug to market was in the order of $1.2 one million million in 2008, compared to $802 million in 2000.ii,iii Given these issues, companies wont adopt new technology unless they know that the technology has a light-headed and unfaltering route to approval.This is particularly poignant in drug formulation and other(a) rate-limiting activities that occur post-patent filing. Once a patent is filed, the clock is ticking on the products life. If a product is going to be a $1billion a year blockbuster, lo st revenues result be at least $2.7 million for every day a product is held from the market. This produces a diaphragm 22 scenario no-one will take the risk to demonstrate a new technology, especially if it is competing with existing and proven methods, so no-one will see a clear adoption path and use it.This is reminiscent of the fledgling biotech industry 15-20 years ago. Pharma was focussed on small molecules and didnt motive to risk bringing into their portfolio relatively unstable products, with complex manufacturing methods and which were without a clear regulatory pathway. Now however, many traditional large-pharma refer to themselves as biopharma companies and Amgen and Genentech (prior to the Roche purchase) are in the top twenty pharma by revenue.Early adopters, such(prenominal) as Abraxis and Elan, have started to clear a pathway to approval, but as yet no company has developed a true nanodrug ie one which was conceived as a nano-enabled product from first principles as hostile to using nano-formulation on existing products.Nanotech has a lot to offer the pharmaceuticals industry and if it follows previous technology examples such as biotech, the successful early adopters will reap the rewards. It still has a number of hurdles to leap, such as a clear regulatory pathway and a demonstration of respect above and beyond current technologies, before it can become mainstream. However, there are significant efforts by industry and governments to help it to jump the technology adoption gap quickly and ensure it can assist in developing the next generation of products that are needed to solve slightly of the significant unmet medical needs faced by patients and healthcare professionals.i Ndieyira, J. W. et al. Nanomechanical maculation of antibioticmucopeptide binding in a model for superbug drug resistance. Nature Nanotech. 3, 691-696 (2008). ii prognosis 2008, Tufts Center for Drug Discovery (Available at http// Outloo kReportsRequest.asp) iii Outlook 2000, Tufts Center for Drug Discovery (Available at http// OutlookReportsRequest.asp)

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