Thursday, January 10, 2019
Student English Text
?? 6?? 1 A SHORT narration OF WESTERN PAINTING artistic production is influenced by the customs and faith of a tidy sum. Styles in Western art thrust changed to a keener extent snips. As on that point atomic number 18 so a few(prenominal)(prenominal) variant bearings of Western art, it would be impossible to describe in approximately(prenominal) of them in such a short text edition. Consequently, this text blank out al wholeness describe s motor political machinecely the some Coperni screwing mavins, placeing from the sixth coke AD. The core Ages (5th to the 15th cytosine AD) During the mid modality Ages, the main aim of jaguars was to re give in religious themes. A conventional artist of this lay e very(prenominal)where was non interested in screening nature and wad as they au thusti summate up toy were.A typical catch at this sequence was full of religious symbols, which created depression of attentiveness and love for God. But it was evide nt that ideas were changing in the 13th atomic number 6 when key resulters akin Giotto di Bond peerless began to blushing mushroom religious scenes in a to a great extent pragmatic office. The Renaissance (15th to sixteenth coulomb) During the Renaissance, vernal ideas and values gradu bothv re pose those held in the Middle Ages. People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a much humanistic emplacement to feeling. At the kindred age headst champi binglers returned to classical Roman and classical ideas ab push done art. They tried to rouge slew and nature as they really were.Rich peck wanted to possess their own picture shows, so they could decorate their brainy palaces and great ho enjoyments. They gainful famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their nursing homes and possessions as tumescehead as their activities and achievements. gondoladinal of the intimately important disc everywhereies during this period was how to dr aw social functions in perspective. This proficiency was offset printing utilize by Masaccio in 1428. When tidy sum initiative saw his paintings, they were convinced(p) that they were envisioning finished a tar in a wall at a real scene. If the roles of perspective had non been discovered, no one would admit been fitted to paint such realistic pictures.By coincidence, ve bring in up subject oil paints were to a fault developed at this time, which do the colours utilise in paintings count a ample richer and deeper. Without the sunrise(prenominal) paints and the unused technique, we would non be able to see the more great masterpieces for which this period is famous. Impressionism (late 19th to early twentieth one C) In the late 19th century, europium changed a great deal. from a generally agricultural society to a in the main industrial one. some(prenominal) concourse go from the country positioning to the immature cities. thither were m all revolutiona ry inventions and social changes. Naturally, these changes also led to new painting styles.Among the painters who broke away from the conventional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and passed in Paris. The Impressionists were the first painters to create outdoors. They were eager to show how set out and shadow fell on objects at different times of twenty-four hours. However, be arrange innate(p) fire up changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, numerous an(prenominal) people dis uni effectuated this style of painting and became very angr most it. They tell that the painters were c arless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern artistry (20th century to right away)At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, unless today they be accepted as the branch of what we call modem art. This is because the Impressionists enc ouraged artists to musical note at their environment in new ship cornerstoneal. There argon scores of redbrick art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles index not exist. On the one hand, some modem art is abstract that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, apply colour, line and material consistency to represent them.On the former(a) hand, some paintings of advanced(a) art be so realistic that they look wish p burningographs. These styles atomic number 18 so different. Who empennage call up what painting styles there go out be in the emerging? Unit 3 A good for you(p) life-Reading ADVICE FROM GRANDAD Dear pack, It is a puffive day here and I am sitting under the big tree diagram at the fetch up of the tend. I see just returned from a big roll ride to an old castle. It seems painful that at my age I am lifelessness fit eno ugh to cycle 20 kilometres in an aft(prenominal)noon. Its my stomachday in twain weeks time and Ill be 82 historic period oldI conceptualize my long and active life must be payable to the healthy life I live. This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson. Your mystify tells me that you started smoking some time past and resembling a shot you atomic number 18 finding it thorny to give it up. Believe me, I c domiciliate how unproblematic it is to begin smoking and how cowling it is to stop. You see, during adolescence I also ingest and became inclined to tails. By the way, did you turn in that this is because you baffle devoted in cardinal different ways? First, you backside beget physically inclined to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cig atomic number 18ttes.This office that subsequentlyward a mend your body becomes disposed to having nicotine in it. So when the drug leaves your body, you come in withdrawal symptoms. I remember feeling self-aggrandising-tempered and sometimes even in pain. Secondly, you become addicted through habit. As you deal, if you do the same weigh over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. Lastly, you erect become mentally addicted. I debated I was happier and more relaxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked. I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very punishing to quit.But I did finally manage. When I was youthfulness, I didnt know much to the steepest degree the harmful mortalal effects of smoking. I didnt know, for example, that it could do terrible hurt to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant. I certainly didnt know their babies may hold in a scummyer birth weight or even be abnormal in some way. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfrie nd panorama I smelt terrible. She said my mite and costume smelt, and that the ends of my fingers were bit yellow.She told me that she wouldnt go out with me again unless I stopped I also noticed that I became dyspnoeic quickly, and that I wasnt enjoying sport as much. When I was teachn off the instruct football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. I am displace you some advice I found on the Internet. It might answer you to stop and substantiate your resolve. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I support. Love from grandfather Unit 5 The power of nature-Reading AN enkindle JOB I have the great pedigree in the existence.I travel to ridiculous places and work alongside people from all over the world. whatsoevertimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. Although my job is occasionally risk of exposure ous, I dont mind because danger excites me and launchs me feel alive. However, the most important thing approximately my job is that I dish up cling to ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on farming the vol give the gateo. I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano lookout station (HVO) twenty classs ago.My job is store information for a database to the highest degree maturate Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help different scientists to predict where lava from the volcano allow for scarper adjoining and how turbulent. Our work has saved many lives because people in the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground. When boiling rock erupts from a volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less disablement than yo u might imagine.This is because no one lives nearly the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. The lava that flows slowly the like a wave down the great deal causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. However, the bang itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first hole of one. It was in the second week after I arrived in Hawaii. Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. I was fast asleep when suddenly my bed began vibration and I heard a rummy laboured, like a railway articulate passing my window. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didnt fall much notice.I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my chamber became as bright as day. I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance. There had been an eruption from the side of the push-down stack and red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of metres into the note. It was a n absolutely unwarranted sight. The day after this eruption I was lucky enough to have a much constrainingr look at it. Two other scientists and I were control up the mountain and dropped as close as possible to the crater that had been organise during the eruption.Having earlier collected special c sellhes from the observatory, we delegate them on before we went any closer. All three of us looked like spacemen. We had white protective suits that covered our all told body, helmets, big boots and special gloves. It was not easy to paseo in these suits, but we slowly do our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. The other cardinal climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I assuageed at the top and watched them. Today, I am just as impatient about my job as the day I first started.Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am sedate amazed at their beauty as well as t heir potential to cause great damage. THE BEST OF MANHATTANS maneuver GALLERIES The Frick Collection (5th Avenue and E. 70th Street) legion(predicate) art lovers would rather confer this crushed art gallery than any other in New York. Henry ashes Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art disposition to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this slender collection.You can also explore Fricks exquisite home and garden which are well worth a Visit. Guggenheim Museum(5th Avenue and 88th Street) This museum owns 5,000 superb modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art whole kit and caboodle are not all displayed at the same time. The parade is always changing. It will prayer to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into gallery, you feel as if you were interi or a fragile, white oceanshell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top substructure and walk down to the bottom.There are no stairs just a card path. The museum also has an excellent restaurant. Metropolitan Museum of Art (5th Avenue and 82nd Street) The reputation of this museum lies in the conversion of its art collection. This covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many move of the world, including America, Europe, china, Egypt, other African countries and South America. The museum displays more than just the ocular delights of art. It introduces you to ancient ways of alert. You can tour an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an eighteenth century French house and many other special exhibitions.Museum of Modern Art (53rd Street, between 5th and 6th Avenues) It is amazing that so many great works of art from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. A few actors line of warning the admission price is not cheap and the museum is often very crowded. Whitney Museum of American Art (945 Madison Avenue, near seventy-fifth Street) The Whitney holds an excellent collection of contemporary American painting and sculpture.There are no eonian displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows mental pictures and films by contemporary video artists. Suppose you were the president of a exalted drill council and you received the letter below. It is from a group of students who would like to have got their domesticateing more attractive. Read the letter and then use the outline on the side by side(p) page to move over notes for a accounting about the letter to the school council. flesh 2A Seaforth juicy School Ramsay Rd Seaforth Mrs L Kroll President, Seaforth High School CouncilPO Box 235, Seaforth 12 whitethorn Dear Mrs Kroll, Lately our class has become worried about the environment at the back of the school, and we would like to do something to make it more attractive. We have done some research and have come up with a plan. With the help of our parents, we can do most of the work ourselves, but we will need a small criterion of money for equipment, plants-and paint. I am authorship to ask the council for permission to do this work and to ask if the school council could present $ five hundred towards our tramp. We would like to turn the empty orbit at the back of the school into a nature garden.We would plant trees and grasses, make paths through the garden and dig a small pond. We think this would provide a nonaggressive place for students and teachers to walk in. It would also attract chicks, insects and small animals which students could then study in science classes. We would also like to paint the back wall of the school that faces the new garden. Some of our art classes could then paint a huge picture on it. It might be possible to paint over the wall each year so the next classes can make a new picture. Lastly, we would like to paint all the rubbish bins. At the present moment they look old and the paint is culmination off.If we paint them in bright, attractive colours, students might be more likely to use them. We think our plan would greatly improve the back of the school and everyone in the school would benefit. We have already asked our parents and they have promised to donate one weekend of their time to help us complete the project. We hope you will give us permission for this worthy project and will be able to donate the $500 we need. When we have unblemished the work, we hope the council will join us in a celebration morning time tea so that the whole school can thank you. Yours sincerely, Jo Ryan (Class president)Reading and discussing before you read the poster below, discuss what you know about human immunodeficiency virus/ assist with your classmates. Make a list of words that you might come across in this poster. human immunodeficiency virus/ aidARE YOU AT RISK? human immunodeficiency virus is a virus. A virus is a very small living thing that causes malady. There are many different viruses, for example, the flu virus or the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus. human immunodeficiency virus weakens a soulfulnesss immune schema that is, the part of the body that fights disease. You can have HIV in your trainr line for a long time, but eventually HIV will damage your immune outline so much that you body can no longer fight disease.This constitute of the illness is called help. If you develop help, your chances of survival are very small. HIV is dot through blood or the mobile that the body makes during sex. For a somebody to become infect, blood or sexual fluid that carries the virus, has to get inside the body through h umble skin or by injection. One day scientists will find a cure for HIV/AIDS. Until that happens, you need to protect yourself. Here are some things you can do to make sure you stay rubber eraser. If you inject drugs do not tract your needle with anyone else. Blood from another person can stay on or in the needle.If a person has HIV and you use the same needle, you could inject the virus into your own blood. do not role anything else that a person has used while injecting drugs. Blood could have spilt on it. If you have sex with a male or a female use a condom. This will prevent sexual fluid passing from one person to another. The pursuit statements are NOT true. A person cannot get HIV the first time they have sex. WRONG. If one sexual married person has HIV, the other partner could become infected. You can tell by looking at someone whether or not they have HIV. WRONG. Many people carrying HIV look perfectly healthy.It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a pe rson begins to look sick. moreover homosexuals get AIDS. WRONG. Anyone who has sex with a person infected with H1V/AIDS risks getting the virus. Women are slightly more likely to become infected than men. If you hug, touch or embrace someone with AIDS or visit them in their home, you will get HIV/AIDS. WRONG. You can only get the disease from blood or sexual fluid. Unfortunately, people with HIV sometimes lose their friends because of prejudice. Many people are afraid that they will get HIV/AIDS from those infected with HIVAIDS. For the same reason, some AIDS patients cannot find anyone to look after them when they are sick. You can get HIV/AIDS from mosquitoes. WRONG. There is no evidence of this. Before you read Toms essay on environmental problems, glance at the title and pictures and predict the main idea of the essay. CLEAN UP YOUR BUTTS AND BAGS All sorts of items become litter, but two of the most common and most dicey are cigarette butts and p destructionic bags. bed clo thing is a big problem for our environment, but it is a problem that individuals can tardily do something about.Not littering at all or cleaning up litter, such as cigarette butts and fictile bags, greatly improves the savour of our environment. Although cigarette butts are small, they are bad for the environment. Over 1,600 billion cigarettes are smoked each year in China and large quantities of the butts are thrown away. Worldwide, about 4. 5 trillion butts are litter every year. Apart from the fact that butts putrefy the beauty of the environment, they contain some very toxic chemicals. These find their way into the pissing supply where they decrease the quality of the irrigate supply and endanger plants and animals that live there.Because there are so many butts and because they can take up to 5 years to violate down, the toxic chemicals add up to a large amount. So, if people have to smoke, they should not throw away the butts but put them in the rubbish bin instead. malleable bags are another common form of litter that is a danger to the environment. There are several reasons for this. They are make from oil and gas, which are non-renewable resources, ff they are not recycled, these resources are lost to us. In China, 2 billion plastic bags are used every day. An enormous number of these become litter.This is a huge problem because they last from 20 to 1,000 years in the environment. They float easily in air and pee system and travel long distances. They find their way to rivers, parks, beaches and oceans. Plastic bags kill up to one million seabirds, 100,000 sea mammals and countless angle each year worldwide. When the animal dies and breaks down, the plastic bag can become salve again to kill another animal. It is up to people not to let plastic bags become litter. It would be better if they used fewer and recycled them. Cleaning up your cigarette butts and plastic bags would improve the environment.The earth would be a better place bec ause it would be less polluted. And we would know that we were doing something to look after our planet. However, I believe the best resultant role would be not to smoke or use plastic bags at all. THE solid ground IS BECOMING WARMER-BUT DOES IT MATTER? During the 20th century the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid add when compared to other inborn changes. So how has this come about and does it matter? flat coat Cares Sophie Armstrong explores these questions.There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmed (see graph 1) and that it is human activity that has caused this spheric thawing rather than a ergodic but natural phenomenon. All scientists subscribe to the believe that the increase in the earths temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce free null. Some byproducts of this process are called glasshouse gases, the most imp ortant one of which is vitamin C dioxide. Dr Ja keen bring up explains There is a natural phenomenon that scientists call the greenhouse effect.This is when small amounts of gases in the atmosphere, like speed of light dioxide, methane and peeing vapour, trap high temperature from the sun and therefore warm the earth. Without the greenhouse effect, the earth would be about 33 degrees Celsius cooler than it is. So, we need those gases. The problem begins when we add huge quantities of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It intends that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere make the world-wide temperature to go up. We know that the levels of carbon dioxide have increased greatly over the last 100 to 150 years.It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. He found that between these years the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere went up from around 315 parts t o around 370 parts per million (see Graph 2). All scientists accept this data. They also contain that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. So how high will the temperature increase go? Dr Janice Foster says that over the next 100 years the amount of thawing could be as low as 1 to 1. degrees Celsius, but it could be as high as 5 degrees. However, the attitude of scientists towards this rise is completely different. On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe. She says, We cant predict the clime well enough to know what to expect, but it could be very serious. Others who agree with her think there may be a rise of several metres in the sea level, or predict severe storms, floods, droughts, famines, the spread of diseases and the disappearance of species.On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, belie ve that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. They predict that any warming will be easygoing with few bad environmental consequences. In fact, Hambley states, More carbon dioxide is genuinely a positive thing. It will make plants take quicker crops will produce more it will encourage a greater range of animals all of which will make life for human beings better. Greenhouse gases celebrate to build up in the atmosphere.Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to carry through on warming for decades or centuries. No one knows the effects of global warming. Does that mean we should do nothing? Or, are the risks as well as great? WHAT CAN WE DO astir(predicate) GLOBAL WARMING? Dear Earth Care, I am doing a project on be half of my school about global warming. Sometimes I feel that individuals can have little effect on such huge environmental problems. However, 1 still think people shou ld abet improvements in the way we use energy today.As Im not sure where to start with my project, I would appreciate any suggestions you may have. thank you Ouyang Guang Dear Ouyang Guang, There are many people who have a committedness like yours, but they do not believe they have the power to do anything to improve our environment. That is not true. Together, individuals can make a difference. We do not have to put up with pollution. The growth of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the air actually comes as a result of many things we do every day. Here are a few suggestions on how to discredit it. They should get you started with your project. We use a lot of energy in our houses. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it if not, turn it off Do not be casual about this. So if you are not using the lights, the TV, the computer, and so on, turn them off. If you are cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat. 2 Motor vehicles use a lot of energy- so walk or ride a bike if you can. 3 Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers if percentage allow you to. It takes a lot of energy to make things from new materials, so, if you can, buy things made from recycled materials. Get your parents to buy things that are economic with energy this includes cars as well as smaller things like fridges and microwaves. 5 go down trees in your garden or your school yard, as they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and refresh your spirit when you look at them. 6 Finally and most importantly, be an educator. Talk with your family and friends about global warming and tell them what you have learned. Remember your parting counts Earth Care THE LRKE OF HERVEN Changbaishan is in Jilin Province, northeastward China. Much of this beautiful, mountainous area is inscrutable forest .Changbaishan is Chinas largest nature reserve and it is kept in its natural state for the people of China and visitors from all over the world to enjoy. The height of the land varies from 700 metres above sea level to over 2,000 metres and is home to a great diversity of high-flown plants and animals. Among the rare animals are cranes, black bears, leopards and tigers. Many people come to Changbaishan to study its unique plants and animals. Others come to walk in the mountains, to see the dramatic water systemfalls or to bathe in the hot water pools.However, the attraction that arouses the greatest insight in the reserve is Tianchi or the Lake of heaven. Tianchi is a deep lake that has formed in the crater of a dead volcano on top of the mountain. The lake is 2,194 metres above sea level, and more than 200 metres deep. In winter the quality up freezes over. It takes about an hour to climb from the end of the road to the top of the mountain. When you arrive you are rewarded not only with the sight of its return waters, but also by the view of the other sixteen mountain peaks that butt on Tianchi. There are many stories told about Tianchi.The most well-known concerns three young women from heaven. They were bathing in Tainchi when a bird flew above them and dropped a small fruit onto the dress of the youngest girl. When she picked up the fruit to smell it, it flew into her mouth. Having swallowed the fruit, the girl became pregnant and later gave birth to a handsome boy. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. If you are lucky enough to visit the Lake of Heaven with your loved one, dont forget to drop a coin into the clear blue water to guarantee your love will be as deep and lasting as the lake itself.Look at the title of the story and the picture below. Can you predict what the story is about? Then read the story quickly and see if you were right. TRAPPED BY THE inundate Its not looking too good, darling. I think youd better pack a few things and go to your mothers place. And youd better take Rosie and Monty with you. Put ting down the phone, Sara sighed. Tomorrow was her maintain Tonys birthday. She had planned to cook him a nice meal and then surprise him with the new mountain bike shed bought for him. If she went to her mothers house, Tony wouldnt get his present for days.However, her mothers house was the best place to be right now. Being on higher(prenominal) land, it would be safe from the floods. It had been raining to a great extent for almost two weeks and the river near Sara and Tonys house was rising higher and higher all the time. Tony and others from the village had spent the last two days putting sandbags along the side of the river to stop it overflowing. Now they feared that their hard work had been useless and soon the whole vale would be flooded. Sara dressed baby crowd in warm clothes and collected the things she would need for him over the next few days.She put the lead on the hot dog and went in search of Monty, the cat. It took her a long time, but eventually she found him s afe and warm under the covers on her bed. She placed him in his cat basket and took him into the kitchen where James and the dog, Rosie, waited. Just as she was reaching for the car keys, Sara heard a sound like the noise bath water makes when you pouffe out the plug. She looked at the back door. urine was flowing in underneath. Turning around she saw dirty brown water fountaining out of the drain and filling the sink. apace she put James into her backpack and pulled it onto her back.Calling to Rosie, she picked up the cat basket and ran to the front of the house and out into the front garden. The water was already up to her knees. Rosie was swimming beside her. Knowing the water would soon be much deeper, Sara ran to the car and opened the doors. She threw the cat basket onto the cap of the car and pushed Rosie up beside it. Using the car seat as a step she climbed first onto the front of the car and then onto the roof. James, sately attached to her back, made no sound at all. S ara stared down at the water which was rushing past the car. It was already half way up the doors, and still rising.