Monday, January 14, 2019
Mind and Body, Dualism vs Neuroscience Essay
The idea of the human beings having a soul, spirit or understanding has long been used although religions bolt downed using it four thousand eld ago for antithetic reasons, some people that simply had a lust for knowledge started stick outking a rightful(a) answer to this question non that long ago. Indeed, this question has seriously been thought about and logically questioned in the last 400 years starting with Descartes who thought that human beings do have an immaterial mind (mind and consistence dualism).However, in the face of fresh discoveries in neuroscience, it is non possible to introduce the theory of mind and body dualism as neuroscience has proved the soul to be the seat of kind faculties that ar believed by dualist to come from the mind. First of all let us blather about mind body dualism in order to fully generalize why it is now an obsolete theory. Dualists believe that the mind is non-physical and is separate from the maven which is physical. Moreo ver, they see the brain to be simply the location of where the mind operates (where the mind interacts with the physical population).Also, the body itself (brain included) is thought to have a different record than that of the mind as one is physical and the opposite isnt. On the other hand, we have physicalism. Physicalists think that everything that exists is physical and at that placefor what we call the mind does not exist as it is not physical. Descartes tunes for his mind and body dualism theory are however convincing if we ignore todays recent discoveries and bring down on philosophical reasoning his first argument is that you can question everything in the material world but you cannot doubt that you are a cerebration thing and exist.Let me explain this further one of Descartes experiments was called Meditations. In his meditations he started assuming (for the purpose of his experiment and not in reality) that there was an evil genius that would deceive him on every thing he though was true. therefor everything he wasnt absolutely sure was true had to be considered as untrue because he did not want to build up logic or reasoning on a weak foundation.In this vogue of thinking, he managed to doubt that the world, his hands, his body, and everything in the physical world was not true (because he would consider that the evil genius could make him think that he actually saw things that didnt really exist). However, one thing could not be doubt, at this precise moment and since his birth, Descartes was thinking This simple trueness could not be doubted he had a mind and was using it to think. Descartes cogitate that because one could be doubt and the other not, mind and body were of different nature.One of his more simple arguments, which is called the divisibility argument, is that as physical things such as bones, flesh, brain tissues and etc. occupy space in the physical world thought-like things such as emotions, thoughts and the mind as a whol e do not, and therefore are not physical. Moreover, Descartes has another argument called the conceivability argument which states that a human being can exists as a thinking things without his extended (physical) body existing (a mind or soul without a body) and that everything that can be conceived is logically possible.Therefor if it is logically possible that X exist without Y, then X is not identical with Y. Now that a background of information on mind and body dualism has been set, let us see why and how recent discoveries in neuroscience make it impossible to maintain dualism as a theory. The way I see things, neuroscience has provided evidences that we do not need to suppose the existence of an immaterial mind to explain deportment and behavior of human beings and also has proven that a lot of the mental faculties dualist attributed to the mind are in fact attributed to the brain.Contemporary neuroscience has greatly better our understanding of the brains functioning new im aging techniques enables scientists ascertain the human brain in action and produces images that define the brain regions creditworthy for attention, memory, and emotion. The latter is the one of most interest in the present indicate as emotions are believed to come from the mind. Emotional responses have been proved to be centralized in the limbic system. In this system we may aline the amygdala and the hippocampus which are the primary areas managing emotions.Then there is the element of decision making. Any dualist would attribute the element of decision making or free will to the mind, however neuroimaging allows us to detect some decisions up to 10 seconds before the actual decision is taken by the individualist with monitoring of brain activity (CAT, MRI or PET scans for example). This questions dualism because as dualists consider the mind to be immaterial, a good question is raised(a) how can the mind (immaterial) which supposedly makes the decision, be observed and pr edicted with material tools?Furthermore, a property of mind according to dualists is behaviour. Research studying victims of brain damage have found correlation between lost faculties or behavioural abnormalities and changes and localized damage in the brain. Phineas Gage is often the outmatch example for this argument. Gage survived an iron rod that destroyed part of his leftover frontal lobe but suffered from severe spirit change. It is noteworthy to specify that the personality change was big enough that his friend would no longer see him as Phineas Gage but as someone else.Even though Descartes philosophical reasoning is worth considering, contemporary neuroscience shows on different levels that what is believed to be an immaterial mind is actually the physical brain. Following Descartes own logic, it is unavoidable to consider all doubtful knowledge as false and start building from information that are certain in order to institute anything firm and lasting in sciences (De scartes, Meditation I). This being said, contemporary neuroscience is found on experimental proofs while dualism is based on theoretical thinking. However, neuroscience has not convinced everyone, where do you stand?