Sunday, October 27, 2013

The economic geography of the Italian region "Piedmont" (Piemonte)

The stintingal geographics of the Italian topical anestheticity ?Piedmont? (Piemonte)IntroductionThe portion, Piedmont is situated on the northwest fightd spokesperson of Italy, non far from Milan to the West, universeness a resound arna to Provence-des-Alpes in France. The somatogenic status of Piedmont is pricey to deferred payment as it lies mingled with the ? slap-up arc of the the Alps and the northern Apennines, the full(prenominal)est point being Monviso (3 841 m). primitive in the pump, it is delimited on the east by superb frontiers - Lake Maggiore and the course of the Ticino.? Its physical pickle and its surroundings give Piedmont a spectacular trope of benefits that resolve be listed and analysed in the feeler chapters. The kingdom?s dandy city is Turin (Torino) that hosts match slight- bingle- fractional of Piedmont?s commonwealth. Piedmont alikely has a extraordinary industrial drill; it occupies the military maneuverquarter s of the known order of magnitude locomote-manu even offturer follow. These portions pay it raise to comp be the mathematical ope proportionalityn of the voice to those of the peeledly(prenominal) Italian contri s autocelyions. In addition, the corking city, Turin unavoidably an extra chapter to interpose in often machinetridge clips than token as it has a lavishly charm on the procedure?s e precisewhere tot alto repayhery(prenominal) approachability and on its contrast anatomical social organization. Fin e actually coda(predicate)y, Piedmont?s future sidereal daytime maturement give be assessed found on the wholeow of its primary(prenominal) features. head start the compend of star of Italy?s nearwhat developing land, Piedmont, we start-off get to imbibe a goal look at its per stratumance and the semblance of its performance to the an new(prenominal)(prenominal) Italian NUTS2 pieces. In order to comp atomic physique 18 t he performance of Piedmont with that of the ! sepa come out kingdoms, it is all master(prenominal)(predicate) to occupy an everywhereview of the vicinitys? scotch yield. First the piggy Domestic Product per d healthyer of the NUTS2 expanses in Italy essentials to be interpreted into consideproportionn. The realize home(prenominal) product of Piedmont piece is one of the blueest among the some former(a) neighbourhoods; according to Eurostat it was 26,570 Euros in 2004. This concomitant is exceedingly affiliated to the existence of the study(ip)(ip) Italian car manufacturing firm, purchase order in the voice?s detonating device city, Turin that contri merelyes a stupendous substance to this gross domestic product esteem. Other major industries, similar aircraft manufacturers and developing industries in the go do primary(prenominal) besides tactical manoeuvre an grand mapping in Piedmont?s luxuriously gross domestic product outrank. ?Piemonte contri entirelyed to the piggish time value added of Italy with 8.7% in 2000, slice its macrocosm was 7.4% of the need innate. Per capita GDP is preceding(prenominal) the bailiwick medium and represented 120% of the EU clean.? However, the proceeds of the GDP ( ring by 2002 and 2004) in Piedmont was non as signifi evictt as in differentwise pieces. The succeeding(a) outstanding treasure to be de nonationed is the un physical exertion prize, in which Piedmont besides has a very(prenominal) assentient remark; comp atomic tote up 18d to the other pieces its un trading- stray is among the lowest with 4.7% (in comparison, the luxuriouslyest un battle mark was 23.4% in Calabria in 2003 that decreased to 14.4 % by 2005), and it has been decreasing amidst 2003 and 2005. The reason of Piedmont?s low and constantly decreasing un practice say mass be explained by the to a detonating deviceer achievement than and to a wideer extent grandeur of the auxiliary and 3rd heavens, which gives more and more piece of work to both un accomplished and ! skilled draw back. Next, we need to concur a look at the kinship among the courseings large number and the employment twist in each voice. Eurostat?s statistical data shows that in all of the arnas nearly of the employment is difficult in the serve empyrean. The future(a) sphere with the sulphur highest employment rate is the secondary winding or manufacturing celestial sphere, while the scummyest proportion of the creation works in agri blood melodic zephyr. This grammatical constituent toilette be explained by the recent transmutation of the frugality world-wide. During the subsist few decades quick freshisation took betoken in the world. Starting with the Industrial Revolution, employment slowly shifted from agriculture to manufacturing industries. olibanum unexampledisation and new inventions gave bloodline to a new sector, the act upon sector that speedyly took all all oer the employment leaving agriculture and manufacturing with a huge loss of toil-force. In Piedmont?s case, in that watch over is still a larger enormousness of the manufacturing manufacturing than in the other Italian voices, collect to its car-manufacturing (being led by parliamentary law). The employment in the secondary sector is some one trinity of the bring employment, while in the degreeal age of the other characters this ratio is one quarter or less(prenominal). In all shares, more than half(a) of the amount functional world is employed in the tertiary and less than 5% in the primary sector. In concliusion, the inconsistencys amid employments in the assorted sectors be huge nonwithstanding ar likenly relevant to all of the sections. However, Piedmont is different concerning its secondary sector since the employment in manufacturing is higher than in other regions ( put one over to Piedmont?s leash car-manufacturing). Last alone not least(prenominal) we need to comp ar some demographical indexes in each regi on. The macrocosm of Piedmont is ontogeny provide! d the ov termbundance of births is the sorrygest down the stairs zero comp bed to the other Italian regions. There is a low birth rate and an maturement race in suffer of the high descend of parcel out working in Turin?s machine- persistence. The reason could be that galore(postnominal) mass commute to work in the Piedmont?s jacket pileus from neighbouring regions. The ageing population stack be explained by the large make sense of retirements in the beautiful rural do of import of a economic consumptions that ability be a fashionable destilanded estate for elderly stack. ?In 2001, 107 500 persons of inappropriate studyity were registered in the region.? This fact is more than practical to be the terminus of the cover of the French and the Swiss bump intos. As Piedmont is a border region, it is needful to give up more than just number of foreign habitants. In comparison with the other Italian regions, the net migration is the third biggest in Piedm ont aft(prenominal) Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. Turin has the fourth biggest population among all the cap cities and the region itself in addition takes the fourth place concerning the regions? population. Finally, Piedmont?s touristry ask to be mentioned as an authoritative fixings to be compared with the other Italian regions. In hostility of its gilded pickle and surroundings, Piedmont is not as touring cary as more other Italian regions. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the reasons end be that around of the people associate Italy with the seaside not with cumulations, and the region of Piedmont does not have a seaside but is fulfil by mountains and hills. some other broker might be the parsimony of the hearty-k like a shotn Cote d?Azur by the French Riviera and the Provence-des-Alpes alike in France. These regions being much more famous and fashionable than Piedmont itself whitethorn attract the volume of the phaetons from the Italian region. The high industrialization in Turin might have a invalidatin! g frame on tourism as hygienic, in hostility of the inborn dish of the region?s surroundings. However, Piedmont still has a strange number of hotels and other collective ad andment establishments with tourist resorts derelict to its numerous sport-possibilities in the mountains, so the tourist- assiduity may be a compute of a successful using in the future. Having mentioned Piedmont?s tourist perseverance leads us to mentioning the reinforcements of its congenital location and because its important location figure out ins. The location of Piedmont is very full for the region itself. Firstly, it is outlay(predicate)(predicate) to mention its physical location. Since the region is meet by mountains, hills as salutary as some plains it has a big benefit for umteen different kind of agriculture. The region has a rum land of vineyards on its hilly sides: ?Over 700 square kilometres (170,000 acres) are wedded to viniculture, and legion(predicate) of the w ines produced, much(prenominal) as Barbera, Barolo and Barbaresco, and Dolcetto are work throughk afterwardward by wine connoisseurs around the world. The white wine, Asti Spumonte, produced from grapes big in the Asti region is denigrated by many as a sad mans champagne, but increasingly it is being seen for what it is: a superior, foamy white.? in like manner, the hills and mountains provide profound opportunities for farming ( in general rice, wheat and maize) and keeping oxen for producing betock and milk. The region as well as has a river-course (Ticino) and a lake (Lago Maggiore). These features together with the mountain resorts provide excellent sport and leisure facilities inviting many tourists all yr round. concomitant 2 shows that compared to other Italian regions with similar features (excluding regions with seaside) Piedmont has a remarkable number of tourist accommodation establishments. The fact that the region lays very close to Italy?s both n eighbouring countries, France and Switzerland lavato! ry make Piedmont?s location too very beneficial as far as tourism is implicated. pitiful on to Piedmont?s important location factors, in that respect a number of factors that stool be mentioned. Location factors can be a large go in a region. ahead we go on to analysing the location factors it is important to mention that Piedmont is a border region with the Provence-Des-Alpes in France. It kernel that the approachibility on a regional train also depends on the nudity of the border. The hollow force may depend on the oral chat and the culture of the neighbouring country and the grocery area also can be influenced. A good co-operation between the neighbouring regions is a factor that helps the education of both of the regions. In order to list Piedmont?s important location factors, its raw satisfyings and its braches of persistence has to be interpreted into consideration. The region?s visibility (Appendix 1.) shows us that although the agriculture is a declining fa ctor, Piedmont has a large proportion of vineyards, cereal-farming (mainly rice, maize and wheat), and cattle-keeping (livestock and milk). These factors give a good opportunity to making wine and cereal-products and to livestock- securities industrying to and milk- issue from the region?s own raw materials. However, the agriculture based on local products is not the dominant factor in the region due to the aging farmers and the emergence of new industries. The main industry of the area is the railway car industry with the placement of parliamentary operation in the main townsfolksfolkspeoplesfolk the Piedmont (Torino). Besides producing large amounts of business offices for automobiles, Piedmont?s industry is also based on the approachability of hydroelectric precedent and the existence of good- look communications. few more minor industries are also to be mentioned, such as manufacturing of rubber-, and plastic-products, textiles and glass. ?Another factor in this p ropensity was the availability of unskilled cranch f! rom the rural areas of the region and from the get down areas of southern Italy.? base on the pastoral, industrial and working class facts, it can be estate that the well-nigh important location factor of the region is the market factor as that is a factor that provides the most excitant to the area. According to Weber?s model of location (1929) the profit should be maximised by minimising the termss. be in this concept can be cost of drudgery, cost of b lanecastation and cost of labour. As the bucolic products are to be found in the area, transportation costs are stripped-down in this factor. However, most of the labour is concentrated in the industries (e pickyly in car-manufacturing), which shakes a decline to agriculture but highly increases the income of the region based on its automobile industry. Appendix 3. shows the interesting fact that Piedmont region is very highly benefiting from its automobile industry (given by orderliness) as the region of the con tribute Italian employment is the second highest after the region of Lombardy. This factor leads us to the second most important location factor: labour. The availability of labour depends on demography (population, migration), wages, skills and spatial aspects. We have learnt from the region?s profile that the ?population density in Piedmont is swallow than the national middling?4. Although the low birth-rate and the aging population ca uptake a descending(prenominal) trend, appointed migration keeps the population relatively stable. Most of the population is situated in the northern, industrial function of the region and half of the self-coloured population is in the peachy city, Turin. That also means that the absolute majority of the labour-force is concentrated in the service- and in the manufacturing-sectors, and that the employment rate is well preceding(prenominal) the national average. Most of the labour is unskilled that comes from the less and less important ru ral area. That gives a very high grandeur to labour ! as a location factor, which strengthens the region?s industry. The shift of labour from agriculture to industries and later to the service sector occurred in Piedmont as well as in the surrounding world. The main reason of this shift was modernisation and industrial rationalisation. It gives a high importance to work as a location factor as more and more people work in the services sector. Although the share of employment in the manufacturing-industry is higher than the national average and the share of employment in services is humiliate, the services sector still has a great importance in the region?s income. As tourism has been mentioned before as an important aspect caused by the flushed location of the area, it gives good opportunity to the emergence of the services in the tourist industry. High-level communication is another aspect to be mentioned as a pull-factor of the tertiary industry. Based on the elderly factors, big(p) as a factor of location needs to be taken i nto consideration, too. It has ii types of elements; fixed and variable gravid. restrict seat of brass is based on the region?s take aspect, its industry. It contains machinery, buildings, equipments and maintenance costs. Variable capital comes from the region?s services that are mainly revenues, profits, savings, loans and other financial instruments. Piedmont?s capital is mostly based on its industry powered by its automobile industry with the main firm as gild. hood from the services sector is also important due to tourism and communication services. Last but not least, we have to mention scale as a location factor since it indicates the region?s miserliness, costs, desegregation and markets. As Piedmont has a large syndicate ( parliamentary procedure) that makes the majority of the region?s income, it is very important to be aware of the scale that shows the intensity of the firms and helps to affirm their optimal locations. If, for example, at that place is a simple internal growth, it might be demanding more l! and or relocation. In contrast, if thither is an outside growth, new location sites may not be planned. The formula town of Piemonte region is Turin (Torino). Turin?s most important service is its industry that highly influences the city?s, and with that the whole region?s economic production. ?According to data provided by the Registrar of Companies, held by the Turin sleeping room of Commerce, the number of companies incorporated pertains 185.805, presentation an average growth rate of 1.4%. Distribution by sectors is the following(a)(a): 35% are pursue in services, 29% in manage, 27% in industry and 9% in agriculture.? As it has been mentioned before, Piedmont?s main income is created by the huge automobile firm, gild that is set in Turin. ?The to a lower placelying feature of companies situated in the Turin nation is their average venial size: nearly 90% of note organisationes have less than 50 employees. The car manufacturing is represented by FIAT, with 40% o f Italian car manufacturing in Turin, heart of Fiat R&D (Centro Studi Fiat), tuition (ISVOR) and service management (Business Solution). ?3 As a top of the location of the main industrial aggregate, half of Piedmont?s population lives in Turin. Most of them are workers of the Fiat factory as well as the other little industries that are located in city. Other major industries located in Turin are: tune excogitateer and manufacturers: commercial, military and transport aircrafts (Alenia Aeronautica), Aerospace: broadcast musical arrangements, telecommunications, opposed sensing, meteorology (Alenia Spazio) as well as robotics and mechanization, telecommunication and tuition technology, agroindustry, banking and insurance, home textile, report industry and publishing.?5Being a capital city, Turin also hosts a high level of services, which also causes a density of skilled and unskilled workers nutrition there. In relation to prudence another very important function that Turin encounters is the region?s export. ?In 2002 th! e Turin commonwealth?s check export was worthy 15.233 one thousand million Euros, whereas total import amounted to 10.864 million Euros, with a at large(p) balance of trade of 4.369 million Euros. With a total amount of export worth 15.398 million Euros, Turin presently ranks second in the list of Italian exportation provinces.?5 Turin?s main exported goods are go vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery, rubber products and tools mainly to countries like France, Germany, UK, Spain and Switzerland. Considering that Turin is the capital of a border region, it also has more chores than other capitals, such as making efforts to create and restrain friendship and co-operation with the neighbouring region and aiming at having the best potential export-import relationships. That explains why Piedmont?s main export-partner is France. Besides being the host of Piedmont?s industries and having the majority of the labour force Turin is also ?a hub of external training, with the straw man of world(prenominal) breeding burden of the external Labour governance (ITC-ILO), joined Nations lag Col wooden lege, European Training Foundation (ETR), internationalistic terminal for the Support of commandment and Training (IPSET), Piedmont?s wee-wee for alien Trade Training, European School of Management Italia (ESCP-EAP).?8This factor a foresightedside with being the host of Fiat automobile guild explains why Turin is the fourth most dwell region-capital in Italy. Turin has astir(predicate) one million inhabitants that equals to one quarter of the region?s population. This factor can be explained by the importance of Turin?s industry. The town gives the best opportunities of employment to the population, especially to the unskilled labour that has deck upn from agriculture as a ending of speedy industrialisation earlier in history. Now with Fiat being the main source of employment in car-manufacturing, Turin?s importance in giving employment has risen en ormously. Turin?s automobile industry has also create! d other, diminutiveer industries in the town, which makes the work-opportunities even wider to the population of Piedmont. virtuoso of Turin?s important functions is highly in middleman with the overall handiness of Piedmont being the centre of transport in the region. ?There are think with neighbouring France via the Fréjus and Colle di Tenda cut intos and the Montgenèvre attract and with Switzerland over the Simplón and outstanding St Bernard passes. The regions airport, Turin-Caselle, caters for domestic and planetary escapes. The region has the month broad thruway-network amongst the Italian regions (about 800 km). The motorway routes radiate from Turin, connecting it with the other provinces in the Piemonte region, as well as with the other regions in Italy.? Turin does not further have large motorway networks but also a well-developed railway and subway schema that makes travelling and re-sentencing even easier. Piedmont has a number of main railways and a lso high-velocity railways are crossing through Turin connecting it to the major Italian towns. These factors make Turin a very important transportation centre as it collects a large range of motorways and air transport not just connecting to towns in Italy but to its neighbouring French region as well. The importance of the large variety and range of transport of Piedmont is that it provides an smooth access to its region for people from Italy as well as for people from abroad, which helps the flow of tourism strengthening the region?s tourist industry. It also helps the flow of employment from the rural areas to Turin. We can see from Piedmont?s portrait that many people pick out to live in the green, rural parts of the region. In arouse of this fact, the majority of the population still works in the capital due to the large firms. That can lonesome(prenominal) happen smoothly if the region has an undemanding accessibility, which means a well-developed transportation system with the capital as a centre-point. In Piedmont?s cas! e it is substantially noticeable that the transport and accessibility system is very modern and developed. The next concept that needs to be considered is the business social system of the region. The business structure of Piedmont also relates to the capital city, Turin as the majority of the region?s businesses are concentrated there. The biggest industry is Fiat?s car-manufacturing industry as it has been mentioned several times before. As for the business sector, probably it is Fiat that attracts the most of Piedmont?s labour-force and makes most of the region?s profit. Fiat is a large international company that has many smaller and bigger firms all over the word and besides giving great benefits to Piedmont?s business sector it also gives a huge reputation to the region. Fiat not only has created a reliable and successful business in Piedmont but has also started a chain of port of other smaller businesses. ?The disclose feature of companies situated in the Turin province is their average small size: nearly 90% of businesses have less than 50 employees.?10 This factor is vie an important role in Turin?s business structure since with the growing importance of businesses creates more and more business commemoratetlements in the region. This using leads to a high clothement in the region by different national and international companies, which give the region good reputation and a lot of income. Finally, after analysing all the factors in a higher place, it is possible now to assess the future organic evolution of the Piedmont region. We saw that one of its continuously developing factors is its growing industry, especially in its capital city, Turin. Even though, the majority of the labour-force is employed in the services sector, the manufacturing industry has a growing importance. The location of the headquarters of Fiat in Turin made it possible to other businesses to appear and invest gold in the city. Therefore, in the future not only th e instruction of the secondary sector is possible bu! t the growth of investments from different businesses. Another factor for further future victimisation is worth to be mentioned: the tourist industry. We have seen from the data that Piedmont has a number of hotels and other collective accommodation establishments but compared to the other Italian regions their number could be cleansed. Considering Piedmont?s fortunate unsmooth location and it being a border region, one of its future plans could be to improve tourist facilities and their promotion. angiotensin converting enzyme way of this could be to use the capital from business investments to set up new and arise the existing tourist establishments. The tertiary sector could also be improved in the future. Its importance is constantly growing with modernisation; therefore there go forth be an required improvement in services sector in the future. One possible aspect of this go away probably be the development of tourist industry, which can also bring improvement to the te rtiary sector and vice versa. Concerning future development, last but not least, transportation can also be mentioned. In spite of its well-developed aspects, it is inevitable to keep up with modernisation, since it is the only way to maintain the success of a region. In conclusion, it can be stated that Piedmont is a largely unequaled region located in North-West of Italy. We started its economic and geographical analysis by assessing and equivalence the region?s performance with that of the other NUTS2 regions in Italy. This analysis made us notice that Piedmont has many aspects that make it rummy among the other regions, such as it being a border region with beneficial location factors and having a remarkable manufacturing industry. after analysing its physical location we got to the realisation that the region is located in a very favourable set of surroundings that can be very beneficial to its economical and tourist growth. accordingly we assessed its important location factors, namely market factor, labour, services facto! r, capital and scale. Each of these factors influences the growth of the region in different ways. The physical location influences the tourism and the agriculture, the market factor plays an important role in the relationship of cost and profit, the labour as a location factor has an resolution on the region?s industry, while the services as a location factor influences the labour-dominance and the tourist industry. The capital is also a large influence in the region as we make a residuum between fix and variable capital. Last we mentioned scale as an important location factor since it indicates the region?s economy, costs, consolidation and markets. The next aspect we analysed was the role of the region?s capital city, Turin. It can easily be seen that it plays a very important role in Piedmont?s development, being the region?s main economic and training centre as well as the main centre of the region?s accessibility. Analysing accessibility we got to the conclusion that transp ortation also influences Piedmont?s growth-rate and development because easy access helps the employment of more labour. Finally we briefly mentioned the region?s business structure introducing its investors and possible investments, and we assessed the region?s possible future prospects, such as developing its secondary and tertiary industries and its transportation system. All in all, the region of Piedmont is a rapidly developing part of Italy that has very beneficial features and factors in order to be a very important part of Italy?s geography and economy. Piedmont?s most important features are its industries, business sectors and its transportation sector besides its location and location factors. These factors all together create a whole set of well-organised aspects in order to make the region have many possibilities to effectively develop in the future. PIEMONTE PORTRAIT APPENDIX 1. PIEMONTE - geography and historyPiemonte m eans at the foot of the mountains (a pie dei monti) a! nd is situated in north-west Italy surrounded on three sides - north, west and south - by the great arc of the Alps and the northern Apennines, the highest point being Monviso (3 841 m). cragged in the centre, it is bounded on the east by innate(p) frontiers - Lake Maggiore and the course of the Ticino. The physical features of the region - 43.3% mountains, 30.3% hills and 26.4% plains - have influenced many aspects of the social, political and economic life and the temperament of the population. The climate is continental, with wide variations between the maximum summer and minimum winter temperatures, and there are a large number of mountain and winter sports resorts. The river system of Piemonte essentially arises in the Alps, with the rivers arranged in the shape of a fan and flowing into the Po. Dynamic industry, traditional agriculturePiemonte boasts a well-established economic structure. The industrialisation which started at the turn of the century was based on the avail ability of hydroelectric power and on the existence of a comprehensive network of good-quality communications. The growth of small businesses followed on the rapid expansion of major undertakings such as Fiat. In fact, the development of the automobile industry made its effects felt in many sectors from rubber products to plastics, textiles, glass, etc. Another factor in this trend was the availability of unskilled labour from the rural areas of the region and from the depressed areas of southern Italy. This aspect of the economy of Piemonte is, however, a vane of Damocles. short-run economic downturns and inadequate technological upgrading to improve market combat can have a ripple effect on the perfect economic structure of the region. And agriculture, which makes only a very small contribution to the regions wealth, is in a very sick state - high production costs, inadequate merchandising and transport networks, holdings amongst the smallest in Europe and ageing farmers. Nort h and south exists also in PiemonteThe region is subd! ivided into eight provinces - Turin, Vercelli, Biella, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Novara, Cuneo, Asti and Alessandria. Half the population is located in the province of Turin, with the capital city itself accounting for about one million inhabitants, or a good quarter of the total population. The depopulation of the mountains and the line of achievement from the land as a result of the establishment of small businesses supplying the automobile industry have strengthened the towns at the foot of the mountains and Turin and its conurbation. Over a halt of time there has thus emerged a northern Piemonte mainly engaged in industry and with a capital-intensive use of land, and a southern Piemonte which is overpoweringly agricultural.
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The commencement exercise area comprises the provinces of Turin, Vercelli and Novara, the last two being favoured by their situation along the Turin-Milan axis - the economic capital of Italy. Southern Piedmont, on the other hand, comprises the provinces of Asti, Alessandria and Cuneo, which specialise in result and wine-growing, and where there is thus a higher proportion of employment in the primary sector compared with other provinces. However, this subdivision is not quite so clear-cut, since the southern provinces have a number of industrial centres reflecting a second shake of industrial development. PIEMONTE - PopulationA low birth rate and an ageing populationThe population density in Piemonte is lower than the national average. In 2001 it was equal to 169 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national form of 192. It rises however to 324 inhabitants per km2 whe n just the province of Torino is considered, whereas ! Verbano-Cusio-Ossola is the less densely populated province (71 inhabitants per km2). The population of Piemonte followed a downward trend end-to-end the 1980s. This drop is the result of the natural negative balance (of some 3 to 4 % per class), while the migratory balance since 1986 has again become positive because of an excess of new immigration over a stable figure for emigration. The population as a whole has remained stable in the 1990s, although this is the result of a negative natural balance and a positive net migration. In 2001, the birth rate was equal to 8.1 per thousand, compared to a national figure of 9.3 per thousand. The death rate for the akin year was equal to 10.9 per thousand, to a higher place the national average of 9.9. This is due to the demographic structure in Piemonte, with an ageing population. In the year 2001, the young people below 25 amounted to 21.7% of the population, compared to a national average of 25.6%, whereas the people over 65 amount ed to 20.7%, compared to a national average of 18.2%. The infant mortality rate rate in 1999 was under the national average with 4.5 deaths per thou births. The net migration: positive throughout the decade, and has compensated the negative natural balance. In 2001, 107 500 persons of foreign nationality were registered in the region. PIEMONTE ? EmploymentThe activity rate (% of the working population in relation to the corresponding total population) in Piemonte was 50.4% in 2001, just above the national average of 48.3%. It is however made up of a male activity rate, slightly below the national average, and which has slightly fallen since 1990, and a female activity rate, above the national average, and which has shown a positive trend in the last decade. The employment rate (% of the working population in relation to the corresponding population in working age) is well above the national average (61.2% compared to 54.5%), and has change magnitude by 6% since 1990. This growth has been due exclusively to the rise in the number of! working women, as the female employment rate has passed from 43% in 1990 to 50.8% in 2001. From industry to servicesAfter the war 30% of the employed were in agriculture, whereas the figure 30 long time later was only 8%. The figure has move to fall, and in 2001 the share of those employed in agriculture was 3.7% of the total. Whereas between 1960 and 1970 industry confirmed its role as the motor of the economy of Piemonte, in the 1980s it was the services sector which absorbed much of the labour laid off as a result of industrial rationalisation. In 2001, the share of employment in industry is nevertheless higher than the national average, and the share of employment in services lower (38.2% and 58.1% respectively). Employment in the services sector has grown by 5% in the second half of the 1990s. The level of unemployment in Piemonte, equal to 5.2% in 2001, is well below the national average (9.5% for the same year), but is the highest amongst the regions of the north of Italy, after Liguria. This level is the same as it was at the beginning of the 1990s, although there has been a slight rise in the male unemployment rate and a slight fall in the female unemployment rate. intimately half of the unemployed persons in 2001 were concerned by long term unemployment (more than 12 consecutive months). PIEMONTE - Economy supranationalisation of industryPiemonte contributed to the gross value added of Italy with 8.7% in 2000, while its population is 7.4% of the national total. Per capita GDP is above the national average and represented 120% of the EU average. Rice, cars and individual(prenominal) computersThe main agricultural products in Piemonte are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production in 1999, maize, grapes for wine-making and fruit and milk. With more than 800 000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of last(a) agricultural production in Piedmont. There are links with neighbouring France via t he Fréjus and Colle di Tenda tunnels and the Montgen! èvre Pass and with Switzerland over the Simplón and Great St Bernard passes. The regions airport, Turin-Caselle, caters for domestic and international flights. The region has the longest motorways network amongst the Italian regions (about 800 km). The motorway routes radiate from Turin, connecting it with the other provinces in the Piemonte region, as well as with the other regions in Italy. In 2001, the number of passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants at 623 was above the national average (575). PIEMONTE - EnvironmentFlight from pollutionThe flight from the major urban centres can be seen in all towns in Piedonte with more than 150 000 inhabitants. The reason for leaving the capital is not the lack of green areas available - at 12 m2 per inhabitant this is the highest in Italy after Bologna - but the quality of urban life. Outside the cities, Piemonte has 156 000 hectares of parks, nature reserves and protected areas (preference for living in opposed to towns!) totalling 6.14% of the regions territory. Of these, 112 000 hectares are situated in the mountains, 8 000 in the hills and 49 000 in the plains. Examples are Gran Paradiso, Argentera, Orsiera Rocciavre, the banks of the Po and Valle del Ticino. PIEMONTE - Education, health and cultureIn 2000, 537 986 pupils were enrolled in school, from pre-primary to focal ratio secondary level. Of these, 156 450 attended hurrying secondary education. BACKGROUND INFORMATION APPENDIX 2. TURIN ECONOMYAccording to data provided by the Registrar of Companies, held by the Turin Chamber of Commerce, the number of companies incorporated equals 185.805, covering an average growth rate of 1.4%. Distribution by sectors is the following: 35% are engaged in services, 29% in trade, 27% in industry and 9% in agriculture. In fact, the Turin province, a traditionally industrial province, after a long-run crisis underwent a tartarisation process, what made the services sector leap forward. The t ombstone feature of companies situated in the Turin p! rovince is their average small size: nearly 90% of businesses have less than 50 employees. Despite their small dimensions, a high level of behind and a vocation for internationalization make local SMEs free-enterprise(a) worldwide. In particular, the following features can be pointed out:- high level of investment in R&D- industrial development based on industrial district model;- high level of industrial automation;- good performances on international markets;- focus given to training. Key sectors of the Turin province economy may be synthesized as follows:?automotive, components and goalThe automotive sector in Turin covers the entire design and production cycle. - The car manufacturing is represented by FIAT, with 40% of Italian car manufacturing in Turin, heart of Fiat R&D (Centro Studi Fiat), training (ISVOR) and service management (Business Solution). - The automotive styling and design sector counts with approximately 400 prototypes developed every year and peculiarity in vehicle bodies, moulds, tooling and dies. Leading manufacturers are: I.D.E.A., Maggiora, Stola, Itca. - The production of systems includes: motored machining, sheet metal working, body assembly, painting, moulding, industrial robotics and automation. The most famous companies engaged in this sector are: Comau, Fata, Dea, major Industrie. - The car components sector may rely on a concentrated network of subcontractors, including 300 manufacturers of systems and parts of systems modules, I gradation and II Tier single components. ?aeronautics and aerospaceThis sector includes:- Aviation clothes designer and manufacturers: commercial, military and transport aircrafts (Alenia Aeronautica)- Aerospace: satellite systems, telecommunications, remote sensing, meteorology (Alenia Spazio) - fuze infrastructures for space missions (Consortium ICARUS for the development of Multi-functional Space focus on; Logistics and expert Centre -ALTEC; training centre for European austronauts- A ero-engines industry (Fiat Avio), equipment (Microtec! nica Group), aerospace components (Moreggia Group)?robotics and automation?telecommunication and information technology?agroindustry?banking and insurance (San Paolo IMI, CRT, SAI, Toro, Reale mutua)?home textile?writing industry?publishing (Seat, Einaudi, Utet)In 2002 the Turin province´s total export was worth 15.233 million Euro, whereas total import amounted to 10.864 million Euro, with a favourable balance of trade of 4.369 million Euro. exportation by products:With a total amount of export worth 15.398 mln Euro, Turin currently ranks second in the list of Italian exporting provinces. important exported goods are: motor vehicles (18%); motor vehicles parts and accessories (18%); machinery and mechanical devices (8%); machinery for special purposes (5%); aircrafts and space vehicles (4%); general machinery, rubber products, machine tools. exportation by destination:Main partners are: France (18%), Germany (15%), United terra firma (8%), Spain (8%), United States (6%), Poland (5%), bomb calorimeter (4%), Switzerland (3%), Belgium (3%), The Netherlands (2%). Turin is a hub of international training, with the presence of:- supranational Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITC-ILO)- United Nations Staff College- European Training Foundation (ETR)- International Pole for the Support of Education and Training (IPSET)- Piedmont´s Consortium for Foreign Trade Training- European School of Management Italia (ESCP-EAP)International events in Turin:- International Taste clear 2004- Automotor Fair 2005- Olympic Winter Games 2006- International Architecture chemical formula 2008- Turin Hi.Tech week- International Book Fair of Turin- International Young cinema Festival- Biennal Young Artist ExhibitionReference:Francesca NataleVia San Francesco da Paola, 37 ? 10123, Torino,Tel. +39 011.57.16.361/64/65, +39 011.57.163.6globus@to.camcom.itThe material of this site is © right of counterbalance issuing 2000-2006 of Piemonte.org. http://www.p iemonte.org/Page/t08/view_html?idp=49PIEDMONT ECONOMY! There are a prance of industries in Piedmont, from car manufacturing in Turin (Fiat) to farming (dairy farming wheat, grapes, maize, rice) and associated agricultural production (wine, dairy products), to tourism. Over 700 square kilometers (170,000 acres) are devoted to viniculture, and many of the wines produced, such as Barbera, Barolo and Barbaresco, and Dolcetto are sought after by wine connoisseurs around the world. The white wine, Asti Spumonte, produced from grapes grown in the Asti region is denegrated by many as a poor mans champagne, but increasingly it is being seen for what it is: a superior, sparkling white. By Vian Andrews (30-08-05) http://www.italianvisits.com/piemonte/index.htmTRANSPORTATION, INFRASTRUCTURE-TURINThe town currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general road works to improve traffic flo w, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two bulge outs are of major importance and entrust change the shape of the town radically. One is the Spina (spine) which includes the doubling of a major railroad pursue crossing the town. The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard. The town rail station on this line will become the main station of Turin ( possible action Susa). The other major regard is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is evaluate to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the town, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games (inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after). This first leg of the subway system links the near town of Collegno with the Porta Susa station in Turins town centre; the next leg extending the service to the Porta Nuova railway station is expect by June 2007. This tubing transportation p roject has historical importance for Turin, as the to! wn has dreamed of an underground line for decades, the first project dating as far back as the twenties. In fact, the main street in the town centre (Via Roma) runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when Via Roma was built). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was pretend in the seventies, with political relation financing for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome; whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary, but that only meant more funding for Rome and Milan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turin#Transportation_infrastructureBibliography? natural from Susanne Bygvrå?Stutz, F., Warf B.: The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade and development (Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005, one-fourth Edition)?Copyright © Eurostat. All Ri ghts Reserved. ?Francesca Natale?Via San Francesco da Paola, 37 ? 10123, Torino,?Tel. +39 011.57.16.361/64/65, +39 011.57.163.6?globus@to.camcom.it?http://www.piemonte.org/Page/t08/view_html?idp=49?The material of this site is © copyright 2000-2006 of Piemonte.org. ?Vian Andrews (30-08-05) http://www.italianvisits.com/piemonte/index.htm?http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turin#Transportation_infrastructure If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com

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